That is income inequality in some countries while in others he used the absolute poverty income approach. Century western Europe led to larger savings and investment on the part of the wealthy classes, there is no guaranty that the rich in developing nations like Nigeria will utilize their savings in productive investment, in fact many of their incomes on conspicuous consumption, foreign travel deposits in foreign banks and hoarding of foreign currencies.
Furthermore, a re-orientation of production system based on local technology that is proficient and less dependent on modern infrastructure will achieve the desired impact of poverty alleviation.
Considering the headcount index, Okoh noted that this measurement of poverty is reliable since it could explain the incidence and magnitude of poverty in Nigeria.
Thus, the greatest short coming or limitation of the individual attribute theory. Englama and Bamidele in the examining the measurement problems of poverty in Nigeria recommended the need to move beyond the income or consumption measures of poverty to social, economic and environmental ramifications of poverty to operate greater insights.
This theory therefore suggests that for poverty to be eradicated there should be sectional and regional developmental policies and welfare measures that should be directed to the unemployed, the aged and the disabled.
Forgha and Akeredolu P. Eyong concluded the explanation of the income distribution theory with its policy suggestion that: According to Eyong Income inequality leads to excessive thriftiness and fall in inducement to invest as a result o declining marginal efficiency of capital.
According to Boye This was because while most of the rich countries have maintained a continuous growth, others with falling incomes kept on declining or at most maintaining a stagnant economy. Another principal supporter of this view was Arthur Lewis. For growth to be effective, he noted that it has to be accompanied by a deliberate policy of reduction, the pattern of growth need to be changed so that the poor in rural and urban areas can participate in the process.
Research carried out by Food and Agricultural Organization F. While deficiencies of various measures of poverty such as the poverty line based on minimum necessities of life, the absolute income received by the poorest 40 percent of the population cannot be ignored.
Thus, employment generation constitutes one of the critical elements in a poverty alleviation programme. Eloho acknowledges that in line with the wrong notion of equating development with poverty alleviation, many analysis and policy makers in Nigeria have cited development programmes to poverty reducing efforts of the government.
In this conception, it follows that poverty is both income and non-income driven.
But that the understanding of the nature of poverty problem in less developed countries must center on the analysis of the size distribution of income, to him, the magnitude of absolute poverty as based on the combination of many factors viz; low per capita income and highly skewed income distribution consequently, the problem of poverty and income inequality is not just one of economic growth and the political and institutional arrangement according to which rising income are distributed among a large segment of the population.
Lewis contended that voluntary saving form significantly large share of national income. Western economic thought on the goal of economic growth and income distribution are incompatible.
Strategy for growth-led poverty alleviation attracted the attention of Atoloye The study by Gray using cross sectional data covering 34 countries did not find any confirmation of the Kuznets inverted U-shaped curve hypothesis; but his own results were ambiguous.
Richardo saw poverty and income inequality as necessary tool for rapid economic development. More in the Nigerian context J. Poverty and prosperity in the U. According to Obadanthe dimension of poverty in Nigeria may be structural chronic or transitory Conjectural.
Accordingly, it was believed that a high degree of inequality in the distribution of income has a favourable effect on the economic growth in the early stages of development and as development gained momentum its benefits will automatically trickle down to the low income group over a long run.
According to him, such suggestion is very ridiculous since it is associated with killing. Foluso in examining the contributions of international agencies towards poverty alleviation argues that although the international agencies have committed more than 20 percent of their total assistance package to poverty reducing activities in Nigeria, more and more Nigerians are still entering into the cold hands of poverty.literature review is designed to provide a foundation on which an informed and engaged reader can assess the relationship between poverty and schooling in.
Summary Findings of Literature Review on Gender, Poverty Reduction, and Economic Growth There are many channels or pathways. A Critical Review of Rural Poverty Literature: Is There Truly a Rural Effect?
INTRODUCTION Three striking regularities characterize the way that poverty is distributed across the American. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance.
Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of. LITERATURE REVIEW: EFFECTIVENESS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA: CHAPTER 2 EFFECTIVENESS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA: CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: THEORETICAL LITERATURE.
There are many theories on poverty and inequality. In.
9 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies after the thorough and in .Download